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In archaeology , a typology is the result of the classification of things according to their physical characteristics. The products of the classification, i. Most archaeological typologies organize portable artifacts into types, but typologies of larger structures, including buildings, field monuments , fortifications or roads, are equally possible. A typology helps to manage a large mass of archaeological data. According to Doran and Hodson, "this superficially straightforward task has proved one of the most time consuming and contentious cts of archaeological research". Typology is based on a view of the world familiar from Plato 's metaphysics called essentialism.
In the 19th and early 20th centuries archaeological typologies continued to be constructed using a combination of empirical observation and intuition. According to Eggers,  most archaeologists give Oscar Montelius the credit for the first serious application of the typological method, but in Eggers' view, his contemporary colleague from Stockholm, Hans Hildebrand made important contributions to the development of the methodology as well. Hildebrand published a fundamental paper on the development of fibulae in the s using the typological method, whereas Montelius at the same time went to international congresses and published smaller papers on this method.
Another early example is the typology published in by Flinders Petrie for the objects mainly pottery found in prehistoric Egyptian graves.
With the development of statistical techniques and numerical taxonomy in the s, mathematical methods including cluster analysisprincipal components analysiscorrespondence analysis and factor analysis have been used to build typologies. These techniques provide a qualitative way to articulate the degrees of consistency among particular attributes. Correlation coefficients created by these methods help archaeologists discern between meaningful and useless similarities between artefacts.
Morphology in archaeology, the study of shapes and forms, and their grouping into period styles remains a crucial tool, despite modern techniques like radiocarbon dating, in the identification and dating not only of works of art but all classes of archaeological artefact, including purely functional ones (ignoring the question of whether purely functional artefacts exist). A diagnosis of myocardial infarction is created by integrating the history of the presenting illness and physical examination with electrocardiogram findings and cardiac markers (blood tests for heart muscle cell damage). A coronary angiogram allows visualization of narrowings or obstructions on the heart vessels, and therapeutic measures can follow immediately. In archaeology, a typology is the result of the classification of things according to their physical characteristics. The products of the classification, i.e. the classes, are also called types. Most archaeological typologies organize portable artifacts into types, but typologies of larger structures, including buildings, field monuments, fortifications or roads, are equally possible.
One class of typology consists of a descriptive or morphological approach. Some examples of morphological and descriptive typologies would be categorizing artifacts distinctively on their weight, height, color, material, or whichever class the individual decides upon. So, the projectile points could be sorted by weight, height, color, material, or however the archaeologists prefers. One of the first national typology bases available on the web exhibits how the arrowhead artifacts found are classified among the fifty states by region, state, or nationwide.
In this particular example, the arrowheads are classified by their shape. The categories consist of: notched, stemmed, lanceolate, and other projectile points. Each category may also be narrowed down into subsequent ones. This type consists of sequential ordering of archaeological artifacts merely based on form. Artifacts organized into this kind of typology are sorted by the use they serve rather than the looks they have or the chronological sequence they possess.
In some cases, the artifacts may not be removed because of the functional purpose they exhibit, and the restoration of the pieces can be more difficult than other types of objects. This type of classification displays information about the artifact via the object's display. Stylistic typology is not to be confused with classification of certain styles, for that would just entail organizing artifacts based on how they look.
This type of typology accounts for information told through the artifact.
Pottery is an example of a stylistic typology because the artifacts provide information on artistic evolution. For cultures that produced pottery, archaeologists invariably spend a great deal of time defining ceramic "types.
Ideally, the attributes used to identify types are ones that are identifiable with the naked eye, and are found on small fragments of pottery, so that the sorting of potsherds into types is quick and straightforward. By sorting potsherds in terms of types, archaeologists can examine a series of potsherds including those lying on a site surface and quickly suggest when and where the pottery was made. By extension, they can estimate when a prehistoric site was used, whether there are any traded pieces, and so on.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The grouping of archaeological finds into period styles via their shapes. Categories : Archaeological theory Dating methodologies in archaeology Methods in archaeology Morphology. Hidden categories: Articles with short description. A cool and pale skin is common and points to vasoconstriction.
Morphology (part 1)
Blood pressure may be elevated or decreased, and the pulse can become irregular. If heart failure ensues, elevated jugular venous pressure and hepatojugular refluxor swelling of the legs due to peripheral edema may be found on inspection. Rarely, a cardiac bulge with a pace different from the pulse rhythm can be felt on precordial examination.
Various abnormalities can be found on auscultationsuch as a third and fourth heart soun systolic murmursparadoxical splitting of the second heart sound, a pericardial friction rub and rales over the lung. The primary purpose of the electrocardiogram is to detect ischemia or acute coronary injury in broad, symptomatic emergency department populations.
A serial ECG may be used to follow rapid changes in time. The standard 12 lead ECG does not directly examine the right ventricleand is relatively poor at examining the posterior basal and lateral walls of the left ventricle. In particular, acute myocardial infarction in the distribution of the circumflex artery is likely to produce a nondiagnostic ECG. The 12 lead ECG is used to classify patients into one of three groups: .
A normal ECG does not rule out acute myocardial infarction. Mistakes in interpretation are relatively common, and the failure to identify high risk features has a negative effect on the quality of patient care.
It should be determined if a person is at high risk for myocardial infarction before conducting imaging tests to make a diagnosis. Cardiac markers or cardiac enzymes are proteins that leak out of injured myocardial cells through their damaged cell membranes into the bloodstream. Now, the markers most widely used in detection of MI are MB subtype of the enzyme creatine kinase and cardiac troponins T and I as they are more specific for myocardial injury.
The cardiac troponins T and I which are released within hours of an attack of MI and remain elevated for up to 2 weeks, have nearly complete tissue specificity and are now the preferred markers for assessing myocardial damage. Elevated troponins in the setting of chest pain may accurately predict a high likelihood of a myocardial infarction in the near future.
The diagnosis of myocardial infarction requires two out of three components history, ECG, and enzymes. When damage to the heart occurs, levels of cardiac markers rise over time, which is why blood tests for them are taken over a hour period. Because these enzyme levels are not elevated immediately following a heart attack, patients presenting with chest pain are generally treated with the assumption that a myocardial infarction has occurred and then evaluated for a more precise diagnosis.
In difficult cases or in situations where intervention to restore blood flow is appropriate, coronary angiography can be performed. A catheter is inserted into an artery usually the femoral artery and pushed to the vessels supplying the heart. A radio-opaque dye is administered through the catheter and a sequence of x-rays fluoroscopy is performed.
Obstructed or narrowed arteries can be identified, and angioplasty applied as a therapeutic measure see below.
Morphological phylogenetics remains central to testing and dating phylogenomic trees, and these time-scaled phylogenies in turn underpin almost all of evolutionary biology. There is a pressing need for scientists to integrate the rich morphological and fossil data with the Cited by: Relative dating does not provide more exact dates. Instead, it provides equally exact dates (based on the radiometric dates of associated fossils) or less exact dates (based on the date ranges apparent from the stratigraphic layer a fossil is found in). Match the following morphological characteristics to the primate groups they describe. Radiometric dating b. The order of stratigraphic layers c. The presence of specific fossils d. The written historical record Morphological changes led to novel interactions among species. c. A mass extinction opened up ecological niche space, allowing an evolutionary radiation of animals. d. Predation selected for enhanced diversity of.
Angioplasty requires extensive skill, especially in emergency settings. It is performed by a physician trained in interventional cardiology.
Histopathological examination of the heart may reveal infarction at autopsy. Under the microscope, myocardial infarction presents as a circumscribed area of ischemic, coagulative necrosis cell death. On gross examination, the infarct is not identifiable within the first 12 hours. Although earlier changes can be discerned using electron microscopyone of the earliest changes under a normal microscope are so-called wavy fibers. The necrotic area is surrounded and progressively invaded by granulation tissuewhich will replace the infarct with a fibrous collagenous scar which are typical steps in wound healing.
The interstitial space the space between cells outside of blood vessels may be infiltrated with red blood cells. These features can be recognized in cases where the perfusion was not restored; reperfused infarcts can have other hallmarks, such as contraction band necrosis.
These tables gives an overview of the histopathology seen in myocardial infarction by time after obstruction. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.