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Two main approaches can be used for determining the age of an ink: indirect dating and direct dating. Indirect dating is based on the chemical analysis of an ink followed by comparison with known samples in a reference collection. The collection should contain information about the inks including the market introduction dates. This approach may allow for an anachronism to be detected. The second concept is based on measuring ink components that change with age.

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This can provide an estimate of age. Additional examination methodologies are being evaluated that concern the other referenced materials.

Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document. Ink Dating and Ink . Analytical methods for dating modern writing instrument inks on paper. From them, we can deduce that ink dating is an extremely complex problem, due to the amount of variables that influence the ink-paper system, and despite the valuable contributions that have been achieved in this field, no solution has yet been found. Accuracy Cited by: Nov 10,   Forensic science of dating inks fine tuned Date: yet this chronological accuracy is insufficient in certain cases, above all in judicial ones. An effective methodology for .

Physical and chemical examinations can indicate the use of multiple typewriters, printers, papers or writing instruments in the preparation of a document. When additions are prepared using the same materials that were used in the initial preparation of the document then the question actually becomes, "When were the additions made?

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Many of the physical examinations are totally non-destructive and do not affect the documents in any way. Nor do these procedures affect the ability of other examiners to perform similar testing.

Preliminary tests showed that monitoring the evaporation of ink solvent from ink on paper is not a suitable method for ink dating. Thermal analysis of ink on paper in two steps revealed that Cited by: Is Carbon Dating Accurate? - A Critical Evaluation of Current Ink Dating Techniques. model has been proposed for the estimation of blue ballpoint pen ink dating by measuring the fading of ink with respect to time .

The chemical testing that is referenced does require removal of samples from the document. Normally these samples are removed with a hypodermic needle sized hole punch and do not affect the legibility of the material. The hole punch is approximately the size of a typewriter period and a full range of tests requires about Because the samples are normally taken from the entire area of writing the legibility of the writing and the ability to perform additional tests are maintained.

In those instances where minimal writing or material exists, the extent to which an examination can be performed will be evaluated individually.

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The ultimate decision of admissibility is at the discretion of the court. The techniques described, however, have been thoroughly researched and peer reviewed in the literature and through presentation to the forensic community.

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The best measure of admissibility is in the competence of the expert, and we at Federal Forensic Associates, Inc. Federal Forensic Associates, Inc.

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FAQ Can you determine the date of preparation of a document containing either handwritten notations or signatures? Can the date of preparation be determined for other types of documents such as typewritten, carbon, computer printed or xerographically reproduced?

Multiple inks can be chemically compared with each other to corroborate or refute whether the entries were created contemporaneously or produced over multiple periods of time.

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Forensic Analysis of Printers and Copiers. Ink analysis and dating can also be conducted on machine printed document such as inkjet ink and toner from photocopiers, laser printers, and facsimile machines.

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Forensic Paper Examination. Gerald M. LaPorte, M.

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He trained with and served as the Chief Research Forensic Chemist with the United States Secret Service and was responsible for maintaining the largest known forensic collection of writing inks in the world. LaPorte is an active member in numerous forensic organizations and has provided expert testimony in international, federal, and state courts.

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Forensic Ink Dating. Ink Testing and Paper Examinations How can ink analysis and paper examinations help determine when a document was produced?

Can you determine the date of preparation of a document containing either handwritten notations or signatures? Yes, with certain limitations. We can determine the first date of commercial .

Ink Dating and Ink Aging.

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