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It was once owned by a Norman knight and then the Lord Mayor of London. Suits of armour, four-poster beds, inglenook fireplaces and an array of beams and wood panelling - historic manor Plas Llanmihangel has every feature you would expect from one of the oldest homes in Wales. Like a set from a popular TV period drama, the impressive Grade I listed fortified manor house in the Vale of Glamorgan oozes history and an abundance of original features in every room. In parts dating back to the 12th Century, the original property was thought to have been owned by a Norman knight and was described as 'a grange', a standard one-storey structure. The impressive Elizabethan manor was then significantly expanded during the 15th and 16th centuries. From about - it was owned by one of the oldest aristocratic families in Wales, the Thomases. The last of this family to own this country pile was Sir Robert Thomas, who squandered the family fortune on disastrous business ventures.

See how some cruck frame building are created and walk through a Snowdonia house. Learn about Dendrochronology,read our Newsletters and blog about some of our members activities.

Members can check on their local groups activities and dairy of events. The Library has a searchable database of available Reports in format of Dendrochronology reports, House Histories and Architectural Building reports.

House histories and Project results, produced by the Project volunteers. This building is only known from drawings by Moses Griffithsthough parts of it were incorporated into Thomas Hopper 's rebuilding of Penrhyn. While it shows the features of this evolving style, the doorway shows the influence of Strawberry Hill gothic.

This was burnt down inbut an engraving shows a fantastic villa with five towers fronted with a Neoclassical portico. In Wales pointed Gothic windows continued to be widely used until about In Montgomeryshire iron framed Gothic windows were used to embellish vernacular houses. Grander houses such as Dol-Llys in Llanidloes, built for George Mears aroun by an unknown architect, but in the villa style of John Nashhad wooden Gothic windows. He purchased the Middleton Hall estate about and built this tower The tower was built to commemorate Nelson's death at Trafalgar.

The tower is 36 feet high. The lower part of the tower is triangular in shape with a turret at each corner and on the first floor there is a banqueting room.

On the second floor there is a hexagonal prospect room surrounded by roof terraces. Castellated Gothic was a style that emerged in Wales following the Napoleonic Wars and has been little studied, although a considerable number of Country Houses were built in this style up to about In some cases Medieval castles which were still inhabited were by re-built in this style. Powis Castle on the outskirts of Welshpool was extensively re-built with new windows and battlements in the castellatted gothic style by Sir Robert Smirke between and In many instances these Castellated Gothic houses, such as Llanerchyddol near Welshpool, have not been attributed with certainty to any architect, and are likely to have been the work of a local architect or one working in Shrewsbury.

The main features of these houses are the prominent machicolated towers and the horizontal, rather than vertical, architectural composition.

Rough hewn stone rather than ashlar was often used and rectangular windows under Tudoresque drip moulds. Initially older houses such as Bodelwyddan in Denbighshire or Hensol Castle had large extensions added to them. Haycock, from Shrewsbury, was equally competent as an architect and may have contributed to appearance of the building.

This has led Thomas Lloyd to suggest that the similar appearance of Glandyfi c.


It is two-storied and battlemented with a turreted entrance porch which leads into a Gothic entrance hall with ribbed ceiling. The main portion of this house was demolished in leaving the eastern tower, service wing and later tower. Further prints of Welsh castellated mansions were included in the Rev Francis Orpen Morris 's The County Seats of the Noblemen and Gentlemen of Great Britain and Ireland which was published in six volumes of coloured lithographs in ; and also in the engravings in Thomas Nicholas' Annals and antiquities of the counties and county families of Wales; containing a record of all ranks of the gentry with many ancient pedigrees and memorials of old and extinct families published in two volumes by Longmans in These volumes give the impression that both the established gentry and the Nouveau riche bankers and industrialists in Wales needed to justify a legitimacy for building in this style and the expenditure they were lavishing on them.

Other early castellated buildings in Wales were Gwrych Castle in Flintshire. One of the most amazing of 19th Century castellated mansions. The foundation stone was laid in and the work was probably finished in The house was started in to designs by John Adey Repton. The arch to the stable block is dated The bay window was added in and in the Edward Haycock took over as architect, remodelling the interior after a fire and adding a Neo-Norman porch to the rectangular tower.

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He continued expanding the house until While the exterior is Tudor Gothic, there is a spectacular staircase inside the tower in a late Gothic or Perpendicular style with impressive fan-vaulting At Ruthin the Medieval castle was partly rebuilt in and then transformed in - by the architect Henry Clutton for Frederick Richard West. Clutton demolished much of the main block of the earlier house and replaced it with a three storied castellated building in bright red sandstone and placed at the west corner a big octagonal tower.

In Montgomeryshire between and Leighton Hall was built by the little-known Liverpool architect W. Gee, probably to designs by James Kellaway Colling. An important development in the development in Gothic rival architecture in Wales was the building of Plas Rhianfa recently renamed Chateau Rhianfa in - The architect was Charles Verelst of Liverpool, who was also known as Charles Ree but the building was inspired by Lady Sarah Hay Williams of Bodelwyddan Castlewho commissioned the building for her two daughters.

Lady Hay Williams, an artist, had sketched the Chateau of the Loire, and presumably greatly influenced the designs of her architect. She may also have been influenced by Harry Longeville Jones who was living close to Beaumaris at the time and was a writer on French Gothic architecture. The house is described as a forest of steep French roofs covered in fish tail slates, and a skyline fretted with curved and straight pitches and spires, which are level with the road at the back.

On the seaward front narrow drum towers with conical roofs. It was completed in and was a pioneering example of the use of Terracotta ornamentation. It was built for was Richard Jones, who had made a fortune in the flannel trade in Newtown. The exterior is of cleanly detailed and well-executed in red brick, with prominent string-courses. The south front with three big gables and a balance of irregular chimneys and near-regular windows, has many C18 features - a hipped roof, two bays, sash-windows, and the central Venetian window.

The symmetrical entrance front is rather C17 vernacular, while the west front is picturesque and irregular in contrast, an asymmetrical gable anchored by a shafted chimney; lower tile-hung wing. It was constructed - incorporating parts of the earlier houses by Samuel Wyatt and Thomas Hopper. The house consists of 15 bays on the E. For a short period at the start of the 16th century, Italian craftsmen introduced the art of highly fired Terracotta moulded brickwork and ornamental plaques into Tudor England.

The use of terracotta was largely limited to Great Houses in Eastern England. One of the earliest architects to make use of this source was the Welsh architect Thomas Pensonwho worked from offices in Oswestry. There appears to be good evidence that he sourced his terracotta from the brickyards which were associated with the Oswestry coalfield at Morda and Trefonen on the Welsh border.

As yet no examples the use of the terracotta from these brickyards for domestic buildings is known, although the Trefonen brickyard, which was described as a terracotta works, was later owned by the railway engineer Thomas Savin and may have been used for some of his projects. This was almost certainly sourced from J M Blashfield 's terracotta works at Stamford.

From about this time terracotta production with matching bricks started to be produced on a large scale in the Wrexham area in association with mines of the north Wales Coalfield. This was centred on Ruabon and many companies sprang up.

The last of these to go out of business was J. C Dennis in However the most important and best known of these companies was J C Edwards, who about opened up the Pen-y-bont brickyard. This brickyard produced a distinctive rich red brick and terracotta ornamentation that can be readily recognised. This was recognised and used by some of the leading architects of the period, most notably Alfred Waterhouse who used it for the Prudential Insurance Offices in both London and Birmingham.

Examples of Ruabon terracotta can be seen on buildings, particularly banks and public institutions throughout England, but as might be expected, terracotta was particularly popular in Wales. Most towns having several examples often including banks, shops and sometimes houses. One of the most iconic Terracotta buildings in Wales is the Pierhead building at Cardiff Docks, adjacent to the Welsh Assembly building.

The Grade One listed building was built in and designed by the English architect William Frame. It was a replacement for the headquarters of the Bute Dock Company which burnt down in A further impressive building using and orangey terracotta with red bricks, probably from J. In Edward Hubbard described them as unconventional and pompousbut taste to-day might be more appreciative and they can be seen as late and almost playful take on castellated Gothic revival architecture with some Art Nouveau detailing.

Built as an office block with the corner clock tower commemorating Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee. The Bank has heavy classical mouldings while the Post Office for the upper storeys uses the local stone with terracotta dressings. The later was the work of T E Morgan, completed inand has an attractive mosaic fascia.

This was to the designs of the work of the Borough surveyor Robert Hurst aroun in deep red Ruabon brickwork with arched display windows with masqued heads used as keystones. The inscription Agricultural Implement Depot runs along the parapet of the building. Even more remarkable is use of white Doulton faience glazed terracotta for the Motor Palace at Llandrindod Wells by Richard Wellings Thomas in - Now the National Cycle Museumit has a curving facade of nine bays of white-faience ware and blocked pilasters dividing the display bays, surmounted with lion finials.

It is an early example of steel framed construction. Ruskin and Street advocated styles of architecture which used striking colour combinations and were modelled on Venetian and north Italian Gothic architecture. There is little evidence of Ruskinian Gothic in Wales, but with the notable exception of Cardigan Town Hall, but it did give rise to the use the use of Polychrome brickwork.

The use of patterned or polychrome brickwork, sometimes associated terracotta was popular in the towns in Montgomeryshire and North Eastern Wales in the s and s. A striking example is the Plas Castell Gatehouse at Denbigh, a Tudoresque machicolated tower with bars of yellow brick contrasting with the red bricks.

The tower was built in In KerryMontgomeryshire the estate architects J W Poundley and D Walker produced an unusual composition of a terrace of houses built for the Naylors next to the former Kerry workhouse. The red bricks are punctuated by a double string of white brick and a pattern of white and black bricks below the eaves and for the upper voussoirs. The use of curved bricks in the voussoirs give the impression of an Egyptian pharonic head-dress.

Prompted by Queen Victoria's Osbourne Housethe Italianate style of architecture became popular in the second half of the 19th century. Features of this stye include belvedere towers and roofs with a shallow slope and wide eaves. In Wales R. K Penson was a leading exponent of the style. Penson had an extensive practice in the south of Wales, particular in church building and restoration, but examples of his use of the Italianate style include the Town Hall at Llandovery and the gate lodge to Nanteos.

The style was popular for country houses in Carmarthenshire and include the now demolished Pant Glas at Llanfynydd and Gellideg at Llandyfaelog. The architect for the latter being William Wesley Jenkins. The house, faced in Bath stone was built to designs by J. Wilson between and Seddon was a London architect who developed an extensive practice in south Wales. Initially he worked with John Prichard from to and then with John Coates Carterwho had an office in Cardiff, until Seddon was surveyor to Llandaff Cathedral and most of his work was church building and parsonages for the Llandaff Diocese.

Castle House had been bought by the railway entrepreneur Thomas Savin in and he employed Seddon to rebuild it as a hotel. Following Savin's bankruptcy init was purchased by the future university and until Seddon together with his partner John Coates Carter continued to rebuild and extend the building. The Builder described it as one of the most original and characteristic monuments of the Gothic Revivalwhile Thomas Lloyd writes Seddon's originality lies in his very fluid use of curves and complex geometrical forms, and in the blurring of angles and joints, syncopation that has something of Art Nouveau.

The stone used comes from Cefn at Mineradressed with Bath stone. He also used an artificial stone and concrete in parts of the building. His castles also had little influence on other architecture in Wales, with the possible exception of the Settlement Tower on Lake Vyrnwy with its conical roof.

The reason for this would appear to be that Burges started working in his distinctive style for his patron John Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of Bute, in and by this time the Gothic Revival style of architecture was already starting to fall out of fashion. The influence of Park House was much more significant; John Newman considers the house "revolutionized Cardiff's domestic architecture" and the Cadw Grade I listed building status given to the house records it as "the pattern for much housing in Cardiff in later C Perhaps the most important nineteenth century town house in Wales.

Nearer home he took elements from ConwayCaernarvon and Durham Castles. Curiously an earlier Welsh example, of of this style, at Plas Rhianfa in Anglesey has been noted above, but there is no reason to think that Burges or his patron were influenced by this. The Marquis of Bute first met William Burges in and this was the start of a momentous partnership that was to last for sixteen years, and Cardiff Castle was to be transformed into a Neo- Gothic dream palace.

Inside Prince Charles And Camilla's Gorgeous Home

Work on the castle started in with Bute's workmen pulled down the houses built against the South Curtain Wall. Burges restored the stonework, and he added a covered parapet walk with embrasures and arrow slits.

Snowdonia houses have recently been the subject of considerable study by the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales and the Dating Old Welsh Houses Group. These houses are typical of the Sub Medieval houses appearing in Wales in the earlier part the 16th century, which are a development from the Hall House. Discovering and Dating old Welsh houses. A project to identify and date old Welsh houses from the tree ring dating of timbers used in their construction and maintain a Library of reports. Discovering old Welsh houses. A project to identify and date old Welsh houses from tree ring dating of timbers used in their construction. Os gwelwch yn dda dewis languange: Please Choose a Language. DYDDIO HEN DAI CYMREIG. Prosiect Dendrocronoleg Gogledd Orllewin Cymru.

The Clock Tower was built on the site of a Roman bastion and completed in In Lord Bute married the Hon. Gwendolen FitzAlan Howard.

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The couple had four children, and Burges designed a Nursery especially for them. The 15th-century Octagon Tower was restored with the addition of a timber fleche or spire above the battlements. Burges created a Library and the Banqueting Hall within the late medieval residential block. When Burges died inhis work was continued by his former assistant William Frame.

Frame built the Animal Wall and was responsible for restoring the newly discovered Roman remains. Castell Coch, a ruined Medieval castle, lying to north of Cardiff, was intended as an occasional summer residence for the Marquess of Bute.

Burges's reported on the proposed reconstruction of Castell Coch in but construction was delayed untilpartly because of the pressure of work at Cardiff Castle.


The exterior comprises three towers, "almost equal to each other in diameter, but arrestingly dissimilar in height. A superb fireplace by Thomas Nicholls features the Three Fates, spinning, measuring and cutting the thread of life.

The octagonal chamber with its great rib-vault, modelled on one designed by Viollet-Le-Duc at Councy, is "spangled with butterflies and birds of sunny plume in gilded trellis work.

The Marquess's bedroom provides some "spartan" respite before Lady Bute's Bedroom. The room is "pure Burges: an arcaded circle, punched through by window embrasures, and topped by a trefoil-sectioned dome. The decoration was completed long after Burges's deathbut he was the guiding spirit; "Would Mr Burges have done it? Following Burges' death inwork on the interior continued for another ten years. The castle was not used much: the Marquess never came after its completion, and the family appeared to use it as a sort of sanatorium, although the Marchioness and her daughter, Lady Margaret Crichton-Stuart, did occupy it for a period following the death of the Marquess in But the castle remained "one of the greatest Victorian triumphs of architectural composition," summing up "to perfection the learned dream world of a great patron and his favourite architect, recreating from a heap of rubble a fairy-tale castle which seems almost to have materialised from the margins of a medieval manuscript.

McConnochie was Mayor of Cardiff in Antoninrestored by Viollet le Duc inwith late Romanesque and a Gothic arcade, but with added 15th-century dormer windows. Features of the house were imitated by other late Victorian houses in Cardiff, but similar houses such as Llanilar at Abermad - in Ceredigion were being built by John Pollard Seddon. During the latter part of the 18th century and during the 19th century, the laying out of towns, villages and industrial settlements gathered momentum.

It was work often done by architects and landsuryors. The layout and design of Aberaeron can now be confidently assigned to Edward Haycock. William Jernagen of Swansea At Newtown the development of the Crescent and Pen ygloddfa to the work of Thomas Penson The grid pattern layout at Pembroke Docks has been attributed to the land surveyor George Gwyther, while the Royal Dockyard and its buildings were probably to the original design of John Rennie and carried out by Edward Hollarchitect to the Navy Board.

Intriguingly Lord Sudeley at Gregynog was to experiment in with concrete houses for his estate workers The following is a selection of some of the Industrial and Estate village built in this period. In many areas of Wales extensive areas of workers housing appeared in the 19th century, The rows of terraced housing for coal miner's stretching along the contours of the south Wales valleys are well known.

At Nant Gwertheyn, now a Welsh Language learning centre, is situated in a steep ravine and the granite was shipped out by sea. It was originally laid out c. There are two terraces of cottages, a Quarry manager's house and a chapel round a green. The quarry closed in and the last inhabitant left in Railway workers at Railway Terrace in Ruthin were provided with rather superior accommodation by the long closed Vale of Clwyd Railway in.

The work of John Douglas the Chester architect, extended into Wales. Plas Fynnon, Nercwysbuilt as the vicarage to St. Mary's Parish Church in Tudorbethan style has been attributed to him. Built of brown brick with red brick and sandstone detailing under a steeply-pitched tiled roof with over sailing eaves and plain ridge.

Asymmetrical facade with advanced, 2-storey gabled porch with moulded purlin-ends, brackets and plain finial. Tudor-arched entrance of tooled ashlar, stopped and moulded and with date carved in the spandrels. It is constructed in red Ruabon brick on a limestone plinth with sandstone dressings, and a Ruabon tile roof.

It has an L-shape with a main north wing and a west service wing. A more important example of this style is the Neo-Tudor extensions to The Hendre in Monmouthshirethe seat of the Rolls family. The original hunting lodge was constructed in a Neo-Norman style by an unknown architect in the s.

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This was extended by T. Wyatt between and Then, from to the mids, Wyatt and his clerk of works, Henry Pope added a great Hall, an entrance court and a massive dining-room wing in Neo-Tudor style.

This created a house with a corridor from the front door to the library of no less than 75 metres. The interior was furnished with much genuine Tudor and Jacobean woodwork, which had been collected from local houses. Arts and Crafts architecture can be seen as an extension of the Tudorbethan Style in Wales. It is seen as starting c. S Benson who was the architect for Clochfaen at Llangurig in Montgomeryshire. These architects very much favoured the use of half-timbered decoration, red brickworks, roof tiles and tile hanging on walls.

A notable architect in this tradition was Frank Shayler who had set up offices in Oswestry and Shrewsbury and developed an extensive practice particularly in Montgomeryshire. In Radnorshire the architect Stephen W. Williams also worked in this style and built the Offices in Rhayader for the supervision of the Elan Valley Reservoir project. Newman describes this as a witty, if rather belated essay in Norman Shaw style with stone, tile hanging and half-timbered gables.

The Arts and Crafts movement progressed in Wales very much under the influence of C F Voyseyand Edwin Lutyenswho were throwing off the influence of both the Gothic Revival and the half-timbered Tudor revival styles which had been so prevalent in Wales.

Voysey had worked in partnership with J. Seddon with offices in Cardiff, but, as yet no examples of his work have been recognised. It has a bowed east window with a recessed veranda and was restored in At Harlech the architect George Walton, a Glasgow architect, better known for his Art Nouveau architecture, was to design Wern Fawr in and also the St Davids Hotel Harlech -but burnt down in.

An architect who made a notable contribution to the public and commercial architecture of Cardiff was Edwin Seward. The first phase was completed inbut it was not finally completed until This building was to become the St David's Hospital.

Seward's next building, the Cardiff Coal Exchange in Butetown was built between and and it is moving more towards a Baroque revival style, although Newman calls it a debased French Renaissance style. Bute Street, Cardiff.

May 02,   Numerous other houses have been dated and the results are now available on analysis of these results in the context of the economic and social changes of the sixteenth century by Richard Suggett and members of the Dating Old Welsh Houses Group will be published by the Royal Commission in autumn Sep 14,   One of Wales' oldest homes dating back to the 12th century is now up for sale. It was once owned by a Norman knight and then the Lord Mayor of LondonAuthor: Joanne Ridout.

The style is also called Wrenaissanceacknowledging a debt to Sir Christopher Wren. In Wales the style starts appearing in the s and was used for major public architecture, the newly founded universities and commercial buildings.

It reflected the considerable wealth generated in this period, particularly from coal mining and also the growth of Welsh National Identity. The first buildings in the newly planned Cathays Park in Cardiff, described as the finest civic centre in the British Isles were the Cardiff Town Hall, later City Hall and the Law Courts, based on plans drawn up in and built between and to designs by Lanchester, Stewart and Rickards.

Newman sums up the buildings as swaggering Baroque.

Architecture of Wales

Alwyn Lloyd and Alex Gordon. The Baroque Revival style was also used for a range of other public buildings, banks and schools and universities. A refined example of this style was used by Alfred Cross for the Edward Davies Building at Aberystwyth Universitywas the first purpose-built chemical laboratory in a British university.

It was opened in by Lord Asquith and remained a functioning Chemistry Department until It now serves as the School of Art Building. The house had originally been built by John Nash in - It was constructed between and The architect was Arthur E. Baroque revival was also a favoured style for bank architecture. This was by Woodfalland Eccles of Liverpool and was built in - Three-bay frontage, with a recessed centre framed columns and topped by a brocken curved pediment.

This was the work of Sir Percy Thomas in - It makes use of Erectheum Ionic columns with a rounded corner and a memorable relief sculpture frieze designed by Thomas which symbolises the drapery trade. Hilling, writing inremarks that in Wales the interwar period is almost devoid of significantly progressive buildings and the abstract Neo-classicism of those public building that were erected had more in common with the architecture of Albert Speer and the Nazi and Fascist architecture.

After the War he returned to Cardiff. He established himself as a leading designer of Civic and University buildings. His work included Swansea Guildhallwhich was built between an and includes the City Hall and the Brangwyn Hall and work on the campus at Aberystwyth University.

The Burton menswear store in Abergavenny is a noted example of Art Deco. Parry, around Classical front in brick with giant Ionic columns is mixed with modernist fenestration and detailing. Examples of Art Deco buildings in Wales are limited largely to Cinemas and houses. Possibly the best example of a cinema is the recently closed Pola Cinema in Berriew Street, Welshpoolwith its attractive curved frontage and good stained glass, which was completed in It has been recently been restored.

A particularly striking example of Art Deco architecture is Penarth Pier. The original cast-iron pier was designed by H. Edwards in - In - a pier pavilion was built in Ferro concrete to designs by L.

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Mouchel and Partners. The pavilion has topee shaped dome lets and a semicircular Tuscan colonnade. Its river span, of 35metres, was when built, the longest reinforced concrete arch in Britain. Clough Williams-Ellis is primarily remembered as the creator of Portmeirion. While at first he established himself as a London-based architect he was to establish himself as major figure in the development of Welsh architecture in the first half of the 20th century, working in a variety of styles and designing buildings ranging from Country houses to workers housing.

While it is a mixture of a number of historic styles, it was a modern features with elements such as the chimneys derived from the work of Lutyens Other work in Wales by Clough Williams-Ellis includes the Festiniog Memorial Hospital ofPentrefelin Village Hall, the Conway Fall Cafe.

At Aberdaron he designed the Old Post Office in a vernacular style in This is well demonstrated by the recently restored Caffi Moranedd at Cricieth and the now demolished Snowdon Summit Station ofwhich was demolished in This is notable not only as an architectural composition, but also because Clough Williams- Ellis was able to preserve fragments from other now demolished buildings from Wales and Cheshire.

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These include the plaster ceiling from Emral Hall. In the years following the 2nd World War resources mainly went on the provision of housing. During these years of austerity some public buildings were constructed including the village hall or Neuadd Tysul at Llandysul in Ceredigion of This was the work of John Davies the county surveyor.

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The concrete frontage has been enlivened by the crow stepped gables and the attractive Festival of Britain lettering. During the s local Government started to commission some notable buildings. Foremost amongst these is the Wrexham Swimming baths of - by F.

Williamson associates of Bridgend. The baths have a giant parabolic roof covers three swimming pool with the glassed end with the diving boards rising to four stories. McRobbie, is a well designed Brutalist building in Ship Street, but its position is hemmed in and led to destruction of other older buildings in the street.

In the Post War Period many major building projects started to be awarded to Welsh architectural firms. The Percy Thomas Partnership lost its identity when it was forced into liquidation in It was completed in - and providingsq ft 18, m 2 of floor space over 25 storeys. The Re-organisation of Local Government in Wales led to a rash of vastly ambitious building programme.

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This mainly centred on the building of new headquarters for the County Councils to assert their identity and the building of Leisure and Arts centres. The subsequent further reform of Local Government, particularly inhas made some of these developments look unnecessary and superfluous. A notable project at the end of the 20th century was the creation of the National Botanic Garden of Wales. The most striking feature of this was the Great Glasshouse.

Designed - by Foster and Partners and built - This is the largest single span glasshouse in the world metres long and 60 metres wide. The roof an elliptical torus is carried on twenty-four elliptical arches and covers 3, square metres, and provides Wales with a building of international note.

The house was built in and is a notable example of Eco architecture. It is excavated into the sloping ground and is turf roofed. The house appears as a low hillock with only a metal flue rising from the grassThe seaward elevation is entirely of glass.

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Steel framed construction with a ring beam that supports the roof. At Bridge End the Bus Station by Gillespies of with its cylindrical tower and clock face, reminiscent of the architecture of the s and 60's, would best be described as Retro style. Currently the tallest building in Wales is The Tower, Meridian Quay at Swansea, which is meters high and completed in The tower has 29 storeys, double the number of the previous tallest building in Swansea, the BT Tower.

Most of The Tower houses residential apartments. The design was by Latitude Architects and elliptical shape of the building is reminiscent of the work of the Austrian architect Heinz Tesar. The only other high rise buildings in Wales are in Cardiff. It is adjacent to the Meridian Gate, Cardiff which is a residential hotel completed in The most striking building of 21st-century Wales is the Millennium centre on Cardiff Bay.

The site covers a total area of 4. The centre has hosted performances of operaballetdancecomedy and musicals. The Centre comprises one large theatre and two smaller halls with shops, bars and restaurants.

It houses the national orchestra and opera, dance, theatre and literature companies, a total of eight arts organisations in residence. The Senedd houses the debating chamber and committee rooms of the Welsh Assembly. It was completed in It has three floors, the first and second floors are accessible is to the public and the ground floor is a private area for officials. The building was designed to be as open and accessible as possible, the architects, the Richard Rogers Partnership RRP said The building was not to be an insular, closed edifice.

Rather it would be a transparent envelope, looking outwards to Cardiff Bay and beyond, making visible the inner workings of the Assembly and encouraging public participation in the democratic process. The impressive Elizabethan manor was then significantly expanded during the 15th and 16th centuries. From about - it was owned by one of the oldest aristocratic families in Wales, the Thomases.

The last of this family to own this country pile was Sir Robert Thomas, who squandered the family fortune on disastrous business ventures. Init was sold to Sir Humphrey Edwin, the Lord Mayor of London, who by today's standards would be considered a billionaire.

Ceiling beams, decorative plasterwork on ceilings, and huge fireplaces are charming features that have been restored and now provide a fascinating glimpse into the past. The kitchen features the original flagstone flooring and has an impressive bread oven nestled within the inglenook fireplace - how many loaves have been baked for the lord and lady of the manor in this structure? The ground floor was a 'working area' during the past life of the house, with store rooms, a workshop, and butler's room.

There is a lobby area where guests would wait to be received before being escorted to the grander rooms of the house on the first floor. Located at the heart of the property and arguably the most impressive room, the wood panelled walls and decorative plastered ceiling create a grand atmosphere.

The vast fireplace includes the coat of arms of the Thomas family as an integral part of the stonework above the fire. While the medieval hall now is a place to relax and drink in the atmosphere, in the past Sir Humphrey created a room filled with fear and excitement. Nervous tenants of the estate would be charged with petty crimes by Sir Humphrey, the Lord of the manor, to terrify tenants and keep law and order on the estate.

According to a previous owner, the dungeons were downstairs under the grand hall, where the local sheriff would keep the individuals charged with a crime before their trial.

Through an array of stone arched doorways and along corridors within this sprawling manor house, on this first floor can also be found a formal dining room, a drawing room, three bedrooms and another kitchen.

The character features in this principle room, as expected from a house of this pedigree, include wood panelling, a substantial fireplace and decorative ceiling.

This room is spacious enough to make even a solid four-poster bed look like a standard divan. There are two further bedrooms and two family bathrooms on this floor plus four staircases, including a spiral staircase. A home of this history must surely have at least one of these circular climbers. On the third floor there are two further bedrooms, previously the servants quarters, and a study.

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