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Although color is one of the more obvious and relatively easy to describe attributes of a historic bottle, it is unfortunately of limited utility in classifying a bottle as to age or type. Although classification by colour is simple to do, the end result is of little value for the following reasons: colour does not have a direct relation with glass type the common green, amber, and brown glass colours can occur in soda, potash, and lime glasses; many lead glasses are coloured ; colour is not related to the technology of glass object production i. Given these factors there is little justification for using colour as a means of classification. There is a very broad chronology of popularity of various colours over time; however that chronology cannot be applied to individual glass objects with any significant level of meaning Glass Color - How does it occur? The purer the sand i.

A yet a few more factors to keep in mind in the dating of bottles Utilitarian items makes up the bulk of the bottles produced during the 19th century and first half of the 20th century.

Bottles intended to be used once to dispense the contained product without much hope of return; 2. Those produced during the era where all bottles were an relatively rare and cherished commodity to be discarded only when broken i.

Click canning jar to view the typology page section devoted to that category. The heavy glass beer bottle pictured to the above left is a classic example of a utilitarian bottle from the late 19th century which was typically reused but follows the dating guidelines on this and the related dating pages.

The dating guidelines found on these Dating Pages and the entire website do not always work well with what the author calls "specialty" bottles click for more information.

For example, some bottle types which were intended to be kept indefinitely like the early 20th century barber bottle pictured to the right were produced with the use of pontil or punty rods leaving telltale pontil scars on bottles into at least the early 20th century. The base image below left is of an late 19th to early 20th century barber bottle base with a very distinct blowpipe pontil scar with a little residual iron from the pontil rod. Another exception example is that the bottles for expensive, limited production liquors e.

Many specialty bottles were imported from Europe, though that fact may be at times hard to impossible to ascertain. Specialty bottles can be, of course, occasionally found on historic sites usually fragments, but occasionally intact but can rarely be used to help date the site because of the diagnostic problems and deposition lag issues noted above.

Rare Cresent Poison Bottle Digging Scotland

Having stated the above, there are still many diagnostic features or characteristics that provide a high probability of both dating and typing a bottle with some precision. A key concept in historic bottle dating is the high probability i. The general probability estimates noted on this website are based on a merging of reliable references with empirical observations made by this site's affiliated consulting experts see the About This Site page and the author all of whom have been students of historic bottle dating and identification for many years.

N otes on embossing, labeling, and existing research. Raised embossing and when present, paper labeling on a bottle can frequently provide important details to refine the probable manufacturing date range if information exists for the company that either manufactured the bottle i. For example, the early San Francisco mineral water bottle pictured here is known to date between based on the information provided by the embossing company name embossed on the pictured side and the glass maker - Union Glass Works - embossed on the reverse and research done by collectors Markota Researched historical information of variable depth and quality exists for thousands of different - typically embossed - bottles.

Published works generally cover either a particular city, region, or category of bottles. See the References page for more information. For a large majority of embossed and unembossed bottles, however, there is little or nothing formally published on the details of their origins.

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Only a relative few geographic areas or areas of collecting interest have received more than cursory historical treatment and the majority of this is due to the efforts of collectors.

Time has taken its toll on records, of course, but much of what happened in the past was simply not documented well or at all as with most endeavors of common people in the past.

As noted in Munsey's book, " When it comes to methods of dating bottles As Munsey also notes - " Most of what is used today to date bottles Still all true today. This body of information will be utilized and extrapolated to make dating and typing estimates for the majority of bottles for which there is either no specific company or glass maker information available or such is not possible to determine because the bottles are unmarked i.

Stell Newman Newman Newman's key made a noble attempt at simplifying bottle dating, but is weakened by the fact that the subject is much too complex to be conducive to such a simple approach by itself. Also, the format and space constraints of a journal article do not allow for the elaboration and illustrations necessary to make a key function fully Jones b.

Newman wryly recognized all this with his reworking of an old saying: "This bottle dating key is for the guidance of the wise and the obedience of fools.

This website is designed to have the informational depth, pictures, and illustrations necessary to solve the problems of the Newman key though his warning still holds, although hopefully less so. This entire website is essentially a key to the dating and typing of bottles. However, the author of this site still recommends Dr.

Before jumping into the key, it must again be emphasized that no single key can get a user to an absolutely precise date for any bottle. The best the following key can do is get a user to a reliably close dating range estimate. Other information on this website usually must be reviewed to fine tune the information about a specific bottle. In addition, other references beyond the scope of this website usually must be consulted to get as complete of a dating and typing story as is possible for any given bottle.

This include period newspapers, business directories, glass makers catalogs, trade journals and related publications, and other sources too numerous to detail.

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Keep this all in mind as you progress through the key which follows and on into the other website pages Starting with Question 1follow through the questions as suggested. There is frequent hyper-linking between the diagnostic characteristics and terminology listed on this page and other website pages. This is done to allow the user to get more information or clarification as they proceed through the key.

Pursue these links freely since they will take a user to more details on bottle dating and identification and hopefully add to the users knowledge and understanding about the bottle being "keying out. The three questions found on this page below answer several basic questions about a given bottle.

Answers to these questions will then direct a user to one of the two additional dating pages which are extensions of this key for the two major classes of bottles: mouth-blown bottles and machine-made bottles. Read the questions - and accompanying explanations and exceptions - very carefully as the correct answer is critical to moving properly through the "key.

For examples of how to use this dating key see the Examples of Dating Historic Bottles page. This page guides a user through the key for seven different type and age bottles with several being side-by-side comparisons of very similar bottles of different eras. This page also shows how other portions of this website can provide information pertinent to the bottle in question. See the About This Site page for more information about the author and contributors.

For brevity, most of the specific references are not noted in the key's narratives. They are noted on the other website pages which expand on the information summarized in the key.

If you know your bottle is machine-made click Machine-Made Bottles to move directly to that page. If you know your bottle is mouth-blown aka hand-made click Mouth-blown Bottles to move directly to that page. If unsure about what embossing or vertical side mold seams picture below are, click on Bottle Morphology to see this sub-page for a illustration and explanation of these and many other key bottle related physical features.

Return back to this page by closing the Bottle Morphology page. Vertical side mold seam on the neck of a beer bottle ending well below the finish, indicating that it was at least partially handmade - ca.

YES - The bottle has embossing or visible vertical side mold seams somewhere on the body between the heel and the base of the finish or lip. A bottle may have mold seams but no embossing, but all embossed bottles were molded and have mold seams even if they are not readily apparent. See note 2 below if there is embossing but it is only within a disk of glass which appears applied to the neck, shoulder or body of the bottle.

This bottle is either free-blown"dip" molde or was produced in a "turn-mold" aka "paste-mold" where the side mold seam is erased during manufacturing. A "NO" answer is much less likely than "YES" for this question as a very large majority of bottles made during the 19th century and virtually all made during the 20th century were mold blown resulting in mold seams; see the note below.

Notes : 1. A low probability though possible "NO" alternative is that the user has an unembossed, molded bottle with no visible vertical side mold seams.

This can be due to one or a combination of factors including post-molding hot glass "flow" masking the mold seams, fire polishing of the bottle body, or atypically good mold part s fitting precision. If necessary, look very closely at the bottle shoulder - the best location to see vertical side seams on mouth-blown and most machine-made bottles - in good light with a hand lens to see if there is at least some faint evidence of where the mold part edges came together.

Often the vertical side mold seams are evidenced by very faint changes in glass density in lines where one would expect mold seams to be. If the embossing on a bottle is only within a separately applied blob seal similar to that shown to the right click to enlargeand found nowhere else on the bottle, the bottle is almost certainly mouth-blown.

This is another low probability choice but certainly possible. One of the longest running "myths" in the world of bottle dating is that the side mold seam can be read like a thermometer to determine the age of a bottle.

The concept is that the higher the side mold seam on the bottle the later it was made - at least in the era from the early to mid 19th century until the first few decades of the 20th century.

Antique Poison Bottles. Related Categories. Auction Alerts. During the 19th century, many new poisonous substances came onto the market to control plants and vermin, for use as surface cleaners, or as medicines. To prevent mishaps, poison bottles were often given distinctive patterns or marked with certain raised shapes, which were especially. First this cautionary note: Bottle dating is not a precise science! Using just physical, manufacturing related diagnostic features, most utilitarian bottles can usually only be accurately placed within a date range of years (i.e., to or ). As listed on my site, the "W T CO" marking on Whitall Tatum Company bottles dates after However, I am not sure exactly when it was discontinued. Most W-T bottles after around are marked with "W over T inside a triangle", and that mark was used until

Kendrick's explains in the text pages that It is true that the mold seams can be used like a thermometer to determine the approximate age of a bottle. The closer to the top of the bottle the seams extend, the more recent was the production of the bottle. The chart accompanying this statement notes that bottles made before have a side mold seam ending on the shoulder or low on the neck, between and the seam ends just below the finish, between and the seam ends within the finish just below the finish rim top lip surfaceand those made after have mold seams ending right at the top surface of the finish, i.

Although there are examples of bottles having mold seams that fit these date ranges properly, the issue of dating bottles is much more complicated than the simple reading of side mold seams. If it were that simple much of this website would be unnecessary!

For example, the process that produces a tooled finish frequently erases traces of the side mold seam up to an inch below the base of the finish whereas the typical applied finish has the seam ending higher - right at the base of the finish Lockhart et. The reason this is noted here is that the concept keeps popping up in the literature of bottle dating and identification ranging from Sellari's books Sellari published shortly after Kendrick's book to as recent as Fike and Heetderk's For a broader discussion of this subject see Lockhart, et al.

If unsure about what the liprimor finish of a bottle is, check the Bottle Morphology sub-page. Toledo, OH.

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This is a "machine-made" bottle or jar and will also usually have a highly diagnostic horizontal mold seam just below the finish base that circles the neck. The picture to the left shows both of these mold seams click to enlarge.

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If your bottle fits this description, click Machine-made Bottles to move to the related webpage which allows the user to pursue more information on bottles produced almost totally in the 20th century by some type of automatic or semi-automatic bottle machine.

The vast majority of U. The following is a discussion of the most common exceptions to the side mold seam "rule" describing a few types of machine-made bottles on which the vertical side mold seams do not quite reach the top edge of the finish making them possible appear to be mouth-blown.

Fire Polishing - Although infrequently encountered, machine-made bottles may have fire polished finish rims - a process which eradicated evidence of the neck-ring mold seam on the rim of the bottle.

These bottles will not have the side mold seam proceeding from the upper finish side over and onto the rim itself. Ostensibly this was done to remove the mold seam rim "bump" that was sometimes left by earlier machines - an action which may have helped facilitate better sealing with crown caps, screw-thread caps, or similar closures which sealed on the rim of the finish. These bottles will, however, have the vertical side mold seam progressing all the way to the very top of the finish side, just not onto the rim.

In general, most of the glass insulators you see at a yard sale, flea market, or an antique store will be of the more common variety. Some of the most common insulators which were installed in untold millions around the United States would include: The Hemingray, Hemingray, Hemingray-9, Hemingray, Hemingray, Hemingray and Hemingray And there are others. Keep in mind that an insulator in a more uncommon color will usually have more value than a similar example of the same style in a typical aqua or clear color.

Most insulators made by Whitall Tatum or Armstrong are common, but again, some exceptions are out there. Most casual sellers on do not know the average value of an insulator they are listing, and often try to start an auction at an outrageously high starting bidand then they get zero interest in their auctions.

Check out the hemingray.

Whitall Tatum Company, Millville, New Jersey

Hope this helps a bit, David. It usually appears to the upper left of the actual embossing. Hope this helps, David. It was found near Jim Thorpe, PA.

Dating poison bottles

Any way you could shed some light on what I have? Most of the W-T CD s are in bluish aqua, greenish aqua, straw, peach, purple, or light pinkish color. MOST of the later ones, the CD style, appear in a clear or off-clear colored glass, some with a dull grayish tint to the glass.

I found a square brown bottle about a foot tall rectangular in shape with WT in a triangle on the bottom w an A and B on either side any answers on this? Hi Adam, Whitall Tatum made thousands of different styles of bottles over the years, so their mark will be found on a wide variety of containers. Sounds like it might be one of many types of amber bottles used for chemicals, cleaning products, etc. Hi Denise, I am publishing your post.

Maybe someone who lands on this website will have more info for you. However, I am very skeptical it would be easy to find any such pictures or lists, if they exist. If you can find any city directories of the s or s, you might find information in those directories on people who worked at Whitall Tatum. Some geneaology- oriented websites may have city directories in their databases with information that could be helpful. No guarantees, though!

Take care, David. Hello, hoping you can help me identify a whitall tatum insulator i have. Back skirt is No. Its a light aqua insulator as well. From my minimal research it appears to be an early embossing style that very few were made. Thanks for any info.


Bill, It is a very common insulator, made in the period. Thanks David. Is is possible to post pictures on this site. That would be much better than my vague descriptions. You are welcome to email me pics. My email address is listed at the bottom right of any page on the site. I have 5 white milk glass pharmacy jars with lids about 6 inches tall with lids on. They are all labeled in black ink with the contents. The names are in Latin I believe. The bottom of the jars are marked Whitall Tatum Co.

Are these jars rare? I would guess they are from the era, but that is just a guess!! I have 2 Armstrong insulators, same design I believe C but the company label on the front differ. Hi Becky, Several times during the production of Armstrong insulators, new sets of molds were introduced. Such as seen in this current webpagesame company, but they no longer make glass. I found an insulator with Whitall Tatum No.

Chembur, Dating+poison+bottles Mumbai. Hello to those all, who make me happy. Myself Dipika, 24 years old happy, well maintained, cute and sexy escort in Mumbai. Dating+poison+bottles I have smooth silky skin, natural breast, face, and black naughty eyes. I will make you spend an unforgettable sensual moment with you anytime/ Dating antique bottles requires knowledge of the evolution of bottle technology and the ability to research manufacturers and bottling companies. Although glass bottles have been made for a few thousand years, it was not until the 19th century that bottle use became . Get the best deals on Collectible Poison Bottles (Pre) when you shop the largest online selection at Free shipping on many items If you enjoy collecting items, here is a guide to collecting the oldest and rarest of antique poison bottles dating back before Features of antique poison bottles.

Thank you. Hello Kat and Robin! And thank you Richard! In any case, the first Whitall-Tatum insulators were not made until about Armstrong Cork Company acquired the glass plants of Whitall Tatum Company inand that particular insulator mold was made in The insulator itself was made in I should also add that in later years of production after or thereaboutsArmstrong, and later, Kerr, insulators DO carry dots placed immediately to the right of a two-year date code, and in those cases each dot does stand for an additional year!

I hope this helps clarify the question! Joyce, my site is not intended as an appraisal site. However, you paid a price which I think is in the typical range for that style of insulator.

HOME: Bottle/Glass Colors. but commonly observed in others, e.g., cobalt blue for poison bottles or soda water bottles from the midth century. variations within the color category, pictures of bottles (with dating details) showing some of the variations, and an overview of the diagnostic utility of the color for dating and/or typing.

Any damage will decrease the value of an insulator. Best regards, David. I have possessed a long-handled spoon marked Whitall Tatum Company since I was a kid in the s.

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I have what seems to be a 20 gallon water bottle. Markings are wt Co 2. On top is k Looks like maybe made for acme water coolers. It is 3 inches tall and 1. I am curious to know how old it is, its use and its manufacturer.

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Anyone can try a keyword search, using the search box located near the upper right hand side of any page on this site to access articles containing more info on certain marks and companies. I have a bottle with a capital A on the bottom and a circle around the A.

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It also has the number 26 on the right hand side of the A and a 66 to the left hand side of the Awhat do the numbers mean? The bottle is like an Amber or brown colorno bigger than 6 inches long.

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I have a clearish bottle I purchased with a light purple color. The seller said it may have mercury in the glass and that is the reason for the color and it is called sunkissed purple? The markings all on the bottom say: W. I cannot find any information on what the UD means? And what year and approximate value it may have. Looking at it in the light, it shows as very purple. Can you please help me out in identifying the markings - especially the UD and can you give me an idea of the year and value?

Thank you in advance and I appreciate your help. Sorry, but the internet is overloaded with lots of misinformation Continued exposure of the glass to sunlight may cause the color to deepen somewhat, but it depends on how much manganese is present in the glass.

Higher amounts of manganese will cause the glass to turn shades of purple. End of rant. I read somewhere that most of the manganese used in bottle manufacture came from Germany prior to WW1. Greg, There are a lot of misunderstandings and misinformation on this topic. The general story told is that during World War I, supplies of manganese were cut off by German blockades from Russia, so glass makers resorted to other ingredients to use as decolorizers, especially selenium, which tends to cause a faint yellowish-straw tint to the glass.

Large numbers of Whitall Tatum glass insulators contain manganese and many of them have turned shades of purple as a result, such as the Whitall Tatum No. All Whitall-Tatum insulators date after aboutand, of course, this is after World War I had ended in Hope this helps a little, David.

Thanks for the great info on these neat insulators! I am having a hard time identifying one that I have: Whitall Tatum Co. Thanks for your help!

Determine if you have an old medicine, poison or household cleaning agent bottle by color and design. Cobalt blue is a color often used in these types of bottles, dating from the s through the s. Many poison bottles from the late s through the early s feature a quilted or spiked pattern and, sometimes, included the word "poison.". Dating+poison+bottles than if you make friends among sex-positive people. So it helps to make sex-positive friends. If there are kink-friendly, polyamorous, or sex geek communities Dating+poison+bottles near you, that's a place to start-not necessarily because kinksters or poly folks are all into Dating+poison+bottles/ Also a good strike on the embossing. gift flasche or gift flaschen translates into poison bottle or poison bottles. $ PNB (bottle second from right) KH (same as above) but in a yellow-green color. 6 1/2" tall, ABM, embossed on the base. This is a hard size to get.

Peach, pink, purple shadesare less common and will be higher in value. Although insulators such as these are often priced much, much higher in venues such as antique shops or flea markets. The CD feels noticeably heavier.

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