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Dating a building by inscription is a long tradition, though few name the architect in such brief form as that on the Town Hall at Blandford Forum which reads 'Bastard, Architect, '. The trouble with inscriptions, useful though they are, is that you cannot be sure that they are right many have been added by later owners or that they date more than a particular feature or phase of development. The datestone has to be treated with the same critical eye as the rest of the building. Historic buildings need historians. That might seem axiomatic, but surprisingly few of the half million or so listed buildings have ever been thoroughly investigated. The rise of a specialist role of architectural historian has gone hand-in-hand with the growth of the conservation movement over the last half-century. What do architectural historians do?
Earlier maps vary in quality and usefulness; it is always important to remember that a building shown on a site does not necessarily mean that it is the building that is there now. Working backwards through street directories and ratebooks can also tell you when a building first appeared and gaps in the series, or significant changes in value, can be a clue to alterations and rebuilding. Owners may have title deeds and these should be examined.
Some areas have had land registration since the 18th century of these, Middlesex and West Yorkshire are the best knownbut the registers are not easy to handle.
For most of that part of London which used to be in Middlesex, original building leases should be registered, a source profitably tapped by the Survey of London, that Rolls-Royce of architectural surveys. Where land was owned by one of the great estates - the Crown, aristocratic landlords, corporate bodies - then with luck the estate records will survive, now often in a local archive office, or, for the Crown Estate, at the Public Record Office.
Locating these records is often something with which the National Register of Archives can help. What architectural historians like to find, of course, are drawings and illustrations. There are many topographical records and photographs.
These will not necessarily help to date a building, though they may establish limits before or after which changes have taken place.
As antiquarian interest in old buildings developed, this changed the nature of drawings from that of 'seats', as in many county histories, to that of rchitectural record, as in the huge collection of some 12, drawings produced by the Buckler family and now in the British Library.
Further into the 19th century more archaeological drawings were produced. All such drawings need to be assessed carefully. A recent study of JS Crowther's drawings of Cheshire churches has shown that he doctored them to fit his preferences for what the churches should have looked like and it is known that TH Shepherd, usually a very reliable topographical draughtsman, removed existing accretions from a drawing of to 'restore' the terrace to its Palladian symmetry of Most drawings were not produced for artistic, antiquarian or archaeological purposes but for practical reasons, at the time of building or subsequent alteration.
These are often a better clue to the date of a building than the topographical illustration. They can range from beautiful perspectives, designed to attract the patron and critic, to the technical detail of working drawings. The greatest collection of design drawings is that of the Royal Institute of British Architects in the British Architectural Library, now being merged with the archive of the Victoria and Albert Museum.
Otherwise designs can often survive with clients, in family or corporate collections. Not all designs were carried out, in full or in part, but the unbuilt is often as fascinating as the built, as shown in Unbuilt Oxford or London As It Might Have Been.
For Victorian and later buildings designs were often published in architectural magazines such as The Builder for which there is a splendid published illustrations index for and the British Architectural Library's 'grey books' are an important guide to published illustrations of 20th century buildings.
When searching for illustrations and contemporary descriptions, however, the relevant trade literature can be as important as the architectural. The process of dating, like all other research into architectural history, is interactive between the building and the documents. Each helps interpret the other. It is the architectural historian's job to work at this interface and join other professionals in formulating proposals for what should happen to historic buildings.
Recent Heritage Lottery Fund guidance on conservation plans has emphasized the importance of research and understanding in drawing up plans, and this is paralleled by the advice in PPG15 that applicants for listed building consent should show that they understand their buildings.
How this is done is perhaps less important than that it should be done and done well. This article is reproduced from The Building Conservation Directory ate, September Recently there have been several significant changes in UK government planning guidance and policy. These documents together replace the Memorandum of Guidance on Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas published in Design-build became more common from the late 20th century, and involves the client contracting a single entity to provide design and construction.
In some cases, the design-build package can also include finding the site, arranging funding and applying for all necessary statutory consents. Often this will be a consortium involving a design firm and a contractor sometimes more than one of each. In the United States, departments of transportation usually use design-build contracts as a way of progressing projects where states lack the skills or resources, particularly for very large projects.
In a construction management arrangement, the client enters into separate contracts with the designer architect or engineera construction managerand individual trade contractors. The client takes on the contractual role, while the construction or project manager provides the active role of managing the separate trade contracts, and ensuring that they complete all work smoothly and effectively together.
This approach is often used to speed up procurement processes, to allow the client greater flexibility in design variation throughout the contract, to enable the appointment of individual work contractors, to separate contractual responsibility on each individual throughout the contract, and to provide greater client control. In the industrialized world, construction usually involves the translation of designs into reality.
A formal design team may be assembled to plan the physical proceedings, and to integrate those proceedings with the other parts. The design usually consists of drawings and specificationsusually prepared by a design team including architectcivil engineersmechanical engineerselectrical engineersstructural engineersfire protection engineersplanning consultantsarchitectural consultants, and archaeological consultants.
Dating historic buildings. Broadly speaking there are three methods of dating. Style: Buildings are often roughly datable by their shawchapman.com the style section of this website for an introduction and bibliography, with pages and bibliographies on specific styles. Dating . The process of dating, like all other research into architectural history, is interactive between the building and the documents. Each helps interpret the other. It is the architectural historian's job to work at this interface and join other professionals in formulating proposals for what should happen to . This article outlines three of the most important methods currently used for dating buildings or, in a complex situation, the order of construction within the building. These are: dendrochronology (or 'tree-ring' dating), radiocarbon dating and thermoluminescence dating.
The design team is most commonly employed by i. Under this system, once the design is completed by the design team, a number of construction companies or construction management companies may then be asked to make a bid for the work, either based directly on the design, or on the basis of drawings and a bill of quantities provided by a quantity surveyor. Following evaluation of bids, the owner typically awards a contract to the most cost efficient bidder.
The best modern trend in design is toward integration of previously separated specialties, especially among large firms. In the past, architects, interior designers, engineers, developers, construction managers, and general contractors were more likely to be entirely separate companies, even in the larger firms. Presently, a firm that is nominally an "architecture" or "construction management" firm may have experts from all related fields as employees, or to have an associated company that provides each necessary skill.
Thus, each such firm may offer itself as "one-stop shopping" for a construction project, from beginning to end. This is designated as a "design build" contract where the contractor is given a performance specification and must undertake the project from design to construction, while adhering to the performance specifications. Several project structures can assist the owner in this integration, including design-build, partnering and construction management. In general, each of these project structures allows the owner to integrate the services of architects, interior designers, engineers and constructors throughout design and construction.
In response, many companies are growing beyond traditional offerings of design or construction services alone and are placing more emphasis on establishing relationships with other necessary participants through the design-build process.
The increasing complexity of construction projects creates the need for design professionals trained in all phases of the project's life-cycle and develop an appreciation of the building as an advanced technological system requiring close integration of many sub-systems and their individual components, including sustainability.
Building engineering is an emerging discipline that attempts to meet this new challenge. Construction is a major source of employment in most countries; high reliance on small businesses, and under-representation of women are common traits. For example:.
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According to McKinsey research, productivity growth per worker in construction has lagged behind many other industries across different countries including in the United States and in European countries. In the United States, construction productivity per worker has declined by half since the s. The twenty-five largest countries in the world by construction output . Large-scale construction requires collaboration across multiple disciplines.
A project manager normally manages the budget on the job, and a construction managerdesign engineerconstruction engineer or architect supervises it. Those involved with the design and execution must consider zoning requirements, environmental impact of the job, schedulingbudgetingconstruction-site safetyavailability and transportation of building materialslogistics, inconvenience to the public caused by construction delays and bidding.
There are many routes to the different careers within the construction industry. These three main tiers are based on educational background and training, which vary by country:. Skilled occupations include carpenterselectriciansplumbersironworkersmasonsand many other manual crafts, as well as those involved in project management.
How is the construction type determined?
In the UK these require further education qualifications, often in vocational subject areas. These qualifications are either obtained directly after the completion of compulsory education or through "on the job" apprenticeship training. Technical and specialized occupations require more training as a greater technical knowledge is required.
These professions also hold more legal responsibility. A short list of the main careers with an outline of the educational requirements are given below:. In a salary survey revealed the differences in remuneration between different roles, sectors and locations in the construction and built environment industry.
Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form objects, systems, or organizations, and comes from Latin constructio (from com- "together" and struere "to pile up") and Old French construction. To construct is the verb: the act of building, and the noun construction: how a building was built, the nature of its structure. Each detail of your old house, from its appearance to construction, contains valuable clues to the building's age. Dovetailed with building research, it often reveals a story of development and change. This brochure is a brief introduction to dating methods. Pamphlet created by: Ryan D. Hayward, Preservation Consultant IntroductionFile Size: KB. Dec 02, Necessary Speed of Construction - If your building needs to be put up rapidly, there are construction types that can speed up the building process. These construction methods utilize pre-engineered methods, allowing for major parts to be dropped of at .
Construction is one of the most dangerous occupations in the world, incurring more occupational fatalities than any other sector in both the United States and in the European Union. Other safety risks for workers in construction include hearing loss due to high noise exposure, musculoskeletal injurychemical exposure, and high levels of stress. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This is the latest accepted revisionreviewed on 5 May For other uses, see Construction disambiguation. Process of the building or assembling of a building or infrastructure. Main article: History of construction. See also: History of architecture. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Home construction. Main article: Civil engineering. See also: Planning permission.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Main article: Construction law. Main article: Design-bid-build. Main article: Design-build. Main article: Construction management. Main article: Sustainability in construction. Construction output in billions in USD.
Years ago man learned that wood was a natural medium to work with. It is plentiful, easy to work, renewable, and the cost is usually well within reach of almost everybody. Structures are built from standard lumber or timbers, which make up the studs, plates, joists, and rafters. Each piece can usually be carried by hand and are easily cut and framed on site.
Interior walls are easily sheathed with drywall, paneling, or other materials. With that most residential construction has and still is done with wood, but with a major change in how building exteriors are finished out. In the earliest years wood was also used on the exterior walls and roofs. Wood shingles have almost completely been replaced by non-flammable materials, such as composite shingles, tile, and metal panels.
Exterior walls are commonly covered with brick, stone, and non-wood siding. Such materials are more fire resistant and hold up to the elements better than wood. Light gauge steel construction is similar to wood frame construction in that studs, plates, joists, and rafters are also used in building structures. As you would assume from the heading, these are made from light gauge steel, instead of wood. The steel members most commonly come in a c-shaped cross section, although s-shaped cross sections are available.
Heavier material is used in structural pieces than in non-load bearing members. The materials are protected by a galvanized coating. Like wood construction techniques, light gauge steel construction allows for the ease in carrying materials, as well as cutting and erecting on sight.
Where as wood construction usually utilizes saws and nails, light gauge steel construction utilizes metal cutting tools and screw guns. Light gauge steel construction is commonly used in in commercial buildings.
Although light gauge steel construction is not as common as wood frame construction in residential work, it is gaining popularity. Joisted or load bearing masonry construct involves utilizing concrete blocks or bricks to build the load bearing walls.
Building construction dating
This technique provides for a very heavy structure, which is definitely not good in earthquake prone areas. This type of structure is so rigid that it cannot flex during tremors and many deaths have been associated with this type of construction where earthquakes have happened. Although this type of construction is not regularly used in residential construction, I personally know an older couple who built their house with this method.
The hand formed the concrete blocks that they built the walls with. Luckily, they don't live in an earthquake prone area. In this method of construction, the load bearing walls are made of brick or formed blocks.
The floors and ceilings are constructed with wooden joists, thus the Joisted Masonry term. This technique is labor intensive, as each brick or block has to be hand set. It's definitely not common in residential construction, although it is still used in commercial buildings.
Structures can be built from readily available materials, such as cinder blocks, bricks, stone, etc. Steel frame construction is used primarily in large buildings.
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